Evaporation – When high temperatures turn liquid drops to gaseous molecules.
Condensation – When low temperatures turn gaseous molecules to liquid drops.
Precipitation – When liquid drops fall to the surface that were formed in a saturated atmosphere.
Infiltration – Absorption and downward movement of water from the surface to the soil.
Percolation – Vertical movement of water down the bedrock.
Ground Flow – Underground flow of water in the bedrock due to gravity.
Through Flow – Horizontal flow of water underground in the soil.
Overland Flow – Downwards flow of water on the surface to the sea.
Source – The origin of the river.
Mouth – The end of the river where it meets the body of water.
Confluence – The junction where 2 rivers meet.
Tributary – A small channel that flows into the main channel.
Distributary – A small channel that flows out of the main channel.
Watershed – The catchment area of water, marking out the drainage basin.
Discharge – The volume of water passing trough a river at a given time.
Erosion – The removal of weathered sediment from the river by its forces.
Hydraulic Action – The removal of loose material in the river bed or banks due to the frictional drag of water on the channel bed.
Abrasion – The scouring and scrapping action of the load against the bed and banks, breaking them down.
Attrition - The reduction in size of the load as they strike one another, hence becoming smaller and smoother.
Corrosion – When the minerals in the rock are dissolved by weak acids in the river and are broken down.
Lateral Erosion – Erosion of the river banks.
Vertical Erosion – Erosion of the river bed.
Entrainment Velocity – The velocity needed to pick up the river’s load.
Kinetic Energy – Energy in the river due to movement.
Gravitational Potential Energy – Energy that the river has depending on its position. It gets transformed into kinetic energy as the river travels downwards.
Transport – The movement of the load through the river.
Traction – When the load rolls along the river bed as the water pushes it.
Saltation – When the load bounces along the river bed as the flowing water pushes it.
Suspension – When particles are carried along the water through the river’s turbulence.
Solution – When small minerals dissolve into the water are transported by it.
Capacity – The amount of material a river can carry.
Competence – The diameter of the largest possible particle a river can carry for a given velocity.
Deposition – The laying down of sediment transported by the river.
Rejuvenation – An increase in the energy of the river caused by a fall in the base level or an uplift in land.
Magnitude Frequency Analysis – A measure to show the size of a flood and how often it will happen.
Flooding – The point at which the river’s capacity is exceeded and the discharge of the river overflows onto the land.
Hard Engineering – The construction of flood defences by using physical materials to manage the river.
Soft Engineering – The use of the natural environment to manage the river’s discharge.
Polar Environment – Regions that are covered by ice sheets and surround the poles. E.g. Antarctica
Periglacial Environment/Tundra – An area adjacent to a polar environment. It is on the edge of a glacier. E.g. Northern Russia.
Alpine Environment – An area that is very mountainous located in a cold environment. E.g. Tibet.
Ablation – The melting of the ice.
Compressing Flow – A reduction in the gradient of the valley, causing the glacier to slow down.
Extending Flow – When the gradient of the valley increases, hence making the glacier speed up.
Basal Flow – When increased pressure on the base of the glacier causes the ice to melt into meltwater.
Internal Deformation – When the ice crystals orientate themselves in the direction of movement.They slide past each other down the valley. This is how crevasses develop.
Rotational Flow – When the ice pivots around a point in the valley.
Creep – When stress builds up in the glacier, it enables it to move and behave like a plastic.
Abrasion – When the material inside the glacier and the ice itself scours and scrapes the valley bed and sides, causing rock to fall off.
Plucking – When the glacier freezes onto the rock. When the glacier moves forward, it pulls the rock and forces it to be ripped off.
Frost Shattering – The breaking of rock as water moves into its cracks and expands as it freezes.
Nivation – The hollowing of the rock due to the presence of ice.
Corrie – An armchair shaped rock hollow in the valley. It has a steep wall, tarn and corrie lip.
Arête – Occurs when two corries on opposite sides of a valley/ridge begin to erode into eachother.
Pyramidal Peak – When 3 corries erode into each other around a single point.
Truncated Spurs – Formations which form when the glacier erodes through inter-locking spurs, formed originally by meanders.
Hanging Valley -This is a smaller sized valley which overlooks the main channel.
Ribbon Lake – A landform which occurs when the glacier erodes the valley.
Misfit River – A river which flows in a valley which it did not erode.
Lodgement Till – Till deposited from am moving glacier.
Ablation Till – Till deposited from a melting glacier.
Moraine – Glacial till which has been sorted.
Lateral Moraine – Moraine located on the sides of the glacier.
Ground Moraine – Moraine located at the base of the glacier.
Medial Moraine – A line of moraine that is located in the middle of the glacier.
Terminal Moraine – Deposited moraine when the glacier has reached its furthest point and stopped.
Recessional Moraine – Lines of moraine deposited and sorted as the glacier retreats.
Drumlin – A landform of shaped moraine. It forms when a glacier moves over the moraine in the valley. It is not exactly know how they form.
Meltwater Channel – A stream/river that flows down the valley which originates from the glacier’s meltwater.
Subglacial Channels – Meltwater channels that flow under the glacier at the base. They form due to increased pressure.
Ice Marginal Channel – Meltwater channels that flow along the sides of the glacier. They are located between the glacier and valley. They form due to increased pressure
Proglacial Channels – Meltwater channels that flow in front of the glacier. They from due to rising temperatures.
Outwash Plain – The flat expanse of sediment deposited in front of a glacier.
Esker – A sinuous trail of deposited material from a subglacial channel. It shows the channel’s course.
Kame – A deposited mound of sediment left in the path of a retreating glacier.
Varve – The varying layers of sediment which gets deposited due to seasonal rates of deposition.
Kettle Hole – A small lake formed from melted dead ice in the valley.
Permafrost – Permanently frozen ground in a glacial environment. It must be frozen for 2 years.
Continuous Permafrost – Permafrost which covers all of the ground. It reaches very deep levels. There is very little melting in the active layer.
Discontinuous Permafrost – Permafrost which does not cover all of the ground and is separated out. The active layer melts easily.
Sporadic Permafrost – Permafrost in very isolated spots with little surface area and little depth. The active layer melts easily.
Solifluction – When the active layer thaws in warmer temperatures, the ice thaws and turns to water, which lubricates the surface.
Ice Wedges – Gaps in the permafrost made of ice.