Human Geography Glossary

˜Acid RainRainfall of an acidic level which is caused by atmospheric pollution.

Ageing Population – A population where the average age increases over time. It’s average is age is proportionally high.

˜Annual Population Change – The cumulative change in the size of a population over one year after natural change and migration have been accounted for.

Anti-Natalist Population Policy - A type of population policy that discourages births and aims to lower the population.

˜Appropriate Technology – The technology used by a group or country that is fitting to their needs, expertise, wealth and resources.

˜Bio-Energy – Renewable energy produced from decomposing biomass.

Birth Rate – The live number of births per 1000 in a population per year.

˜Carrying Capacity – The largest population of people a particular area can support at a given level of technological development.

Climate Change – The way global patterns of the climate differ over time.

Census - A questionnaire given to each member of the population that asks questions about standards of living, ethnicity and personal information.

˜Death Rate – Number of deaths per 1000 of a  population per year.

Demographic Transition Model ˜- A graph showing how levels of a population change when birth and death rates vary over time as a country moves through the stages of development. 

Dependency Ratio – The proportion of non-economically active members of a population are supported by those who should be working.

Emigrant – Someone migrating out of a country.

˜Energy Conservation – The methods used to reduce the total amount of energy used.

Fertility Rate – Average amount of children a woman of a population has when in child bearing age.

˜Forced Migration – The migrant is made to migrate due to certain circumstances.

˜Geothermal Energy – Renewable energy obtained from the heating of water using the Earth’s natural heat.

˜Hydroelectricity – The electricity generated from the flow of water passing through a dam.

˜Host Country – The country where migrants immigrate to.

Immigrant – Someone migrating into a country. ˜

Infant Mortality Rate – Number of deaths of infants (aged 1 year and below) per 1000 of a population per year.

˜Life Expectancy – Average number of years one is predicted to live.

˜Migration – A permanent or semi-permanent change of residence of an individual or group of people.

Migration RateDifference of the number of people entering and leaving a country per year per 1000.

Natural Change – The change in population size due to the interrelationship in birth and death rates.

˜Net Migration – The difference between immigrants and emigrants in an area.

˜Non–Renewable ResourcesFinite resources which have been built up over time and can’t be used without depleting stock levels.

˜Nuclear Energy – Energy produced from nuclear fission. It is achieved from a reaction in the nucleus in the atom.

Old-Age Index – The proportion of retired members in a population that are supported economically by those who should be working.

˜Optimum Population – The population at which quality of life is at its highest at a given level of technological development.

Overpopulation – When an increase in population decreases quality of life.

˜Population Density – The degree to which people are spread out in an area.

Population Structure – The proportion of males and females of different age groups in a single population.

˜Primary Energy – Energy sources in their raw form when extracted.

Pro-Natalist Population Policy – A type of population policy that encourages births and aims to raise the population level.

˜Pull Factors – Reasons to immigrate into a country.

˜Push Factors – Reasons to emigrate away from a country.

Rate of Natural Change – Number of people per year by which the population increases or decreases.

˜Renewable Resources – Resources that have a natural rate of availability. They yield a sustainable continuous flow.

˜Replacement Level – Number of children needed to be born to maintain the population size.

˜Resource – Any part of the environment that can be used to meet human needs.

˜Secondary EnergyManufactured sources of energy used to provide power. They are produced from primary energy.

Settlement - A distinct area of a city that has its own characteristics. ˜

˜Solar Energy – Renewable energy obtained directly from solar output.

Source Country – The country from where the migrants emigrate from.

˜Sustainable Development – Development that meets the needs of the current generation without compromising the needs of  future generations.

˜Tidal Energy – Renewable energy obtained from the rise and fall of the ocean’s tide.

˜TNC – (Trans National Corporation) A multinational company that has its headquarters in a developed country but factories in developing countries.

˜Underpopulation – When an increase in population increases quality of life.

Voluntary Migration – The migrant makes the choice to migrate.

˜Wave Energy – Renewable energy produced from the force of the waves pushing air into a turbine.

˜Wind Energy – Renewable energy obtained by the moving force of the wind.

Young-Age Index - The proportion of members of the population who still haven’t started to work that are supported by those who do.

Youthful Population – A population where average age decreases over time and is proportionally very low.